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„Въпросът за несъзнаваното в когнитивната психология“.
The Fifth Interaction and the Distribution of Energy and Matter in Time and Space
In physics, four fundamental interactions are known, on the basis of which our entire idea of reality is built – from the smallest building particles to the structure of the universe itself. With their help, we can explain a great many physical phenomena in the field of gravity, electromagnetic forces, the construction of the nucleus and many others. However, important questions remain unanswered, such as the Heisenberg uncertainty and nature of particle-wave dualism, what is behind Planck’s constant, what force determines the direction of entropy, and also affects the structure of the atomic nucleus and electron shells. At the macro level, there are open questions like this about the uniformity of the universe. By defining the fifth interaction, responsible for the uniform distribution of energy and matter in space and time, it becomes possible to clarify many key physical phenomena and in combination with the other four, a much more complete picture of physical reality is obtained. Apart from the fact that the present work represents an upgrade of the existing theory, it provides a prospect for additional developments that contribute to the resolution of other scientific problems.
The well-known fundamental interactions in physics are gravitational, electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear interactions. Is there, however, besides the four, another, fifth, fundamental force to determine physical reality? The answer is yes. The magnitude of this force is a consequence of the size of the universe itself and is the same everywhere in it. Its main characteristic is that by creating tension throughout space it seeks to distribute matter and energy evenly within it. Its range of action is from the smallest building blocks of matter and energy at the micro level to everything at the macro level – planets, stars, galaxies, etc. To see how it works, we will look at different cases of physical reality.
The first question we will ask is what would the placement of a certain amount of energy in space look like in terms of our daily experience. To simplify matters, we will assume that the energy is in the form of oil, which we need to store in some tank with a capacity of ten units. We know from experience that if we pour one unit of oil into it, it will occupy one tenth of the volume of the tank. If we pour energy in the form of two units of oil, it will take up twice the space, at three – three times the space, at ten – it will fill up. This is how it should be in terms of our experience. However, what does the distribution of energy in space look like when we move to the quantum level. Strangely enough, it turns out to be just the opposite – the greater the energy, the less space it takes, and the smaller the energy, the more space it takes. Take for example the photons, which are the carriers of the electromagnetic interaction. The greater their energy, the smaller their wavelength, that is, the smaller their spatial dimensions. Accordingly, the smaller their energy, the greater their wavelength and the place in which they extend. This is completely contrary to our experience and understanding.
What is at the heart of this physical phenomenon? The answer is that this is the fifth interaction, or in other words, the force that acts in the direction of uniform distribution of energy and matter in the universe. What happens when we look at the example of photons? By creating tension in space, it inflates the photons to certain sizes. The amount of energy they possess counteracts this. The greater the energy possessed, the greater the counteraction and, accordingly, the less the inflation and, consequently, the wavelength of the photon is smaller. The lower energy of the photons implies a longer wavelength. In other words, its frequency is reduced (how many times the energy can be applied in the given space).
Here comes an extremely important question. We know that energy equals frequency times Planck’s constant (Е= ν.h). What is Planck’s constant? Is this some random number that appears as a result of some experimental research or theoretical assumptions? Absolutely not. This is not some random number that we have taken as a constant but is a direct expression of the spatial tension and it determines how the placement of energy in space occurs. The size of the universe, forming the fifth interaction, in addition to having an effect at the astronomical level, also affects quantum, namely by determining the size of Planck’s constant. In a photon, it specifies how its energy will acquire a certain spatial dimension in the form of wavelength and corresponding frequency.
What about particles that have mass at rest? There, the spatial tension acts in the same way, but things are a little more complicated. We know that they are both particles and waves. But what does that really mean? For almost a hundred years, physicists have been asking themselves this question, and no satisfactory answer has been found. Let’s take a look at what a moving electron is. In addition to the resting mass, which is also energy according to Einstein’s formula E=m.c2, it possesses other energy causing its movement in space. The key point here is that this energy is located not inside the electron, but around it. If it is at rest, the electron has one spatial extension, but the moment it acquires some energy, it immediately becomes another. The distribution of this energy around the particle takes place on the same principle as the photon – depending on the size, it occupies a given space. With less energy –more and vice versa. This is precisely the idea of the corpuscular-wave mechanism. A particle that, in addition to having a given size when at rest, acquires energy changes its size under the influence of spatial stress and acquires the corresponding frequency and wavelength.
Proceeding from this point of view, we can find an answer to a question that for almost as long remains with an unsatisfactory answer – „Why when we irradiate with electrons passing through two slits of a barrier located at a distance behind it photographic plate, the photographic plate gets an interference picture, if they are registered on it as points struck by particles?“ Even if we dropped the electrons one by one over a long interval of time, the picture remained the same. In Figure 1, we can see how this is usually illustrated in physics.
Moreover, according to quantum mechanics, it turns out as if electrons are passing through both slits at the same time. Theoretically, this is true, but can it really happen? According to the fifth interaction, the distribution of energy around the electron gives it true, not just theoretical, wave characteristics, and therefore interference /Figure 2/.
Normally, even if we let the electrons through any period of time through the slits, they do not lose their true wave nature and again there will be an interference picture. What does the bigger challenge look like – to explain the passage of electrons simultaneously through both slits. Until now, quantum theory has only assumed this to be the case, without giving an acceptable explanation of how it happens. In fact, the electron, which is conventionally made up of two parts – a particle that would exist at rest and a wave of energy around it, actually passes through both slits. However, the particle with some of the energy passes through one slit and the rest of the energy /Figure 3/.
This is a consequence of the principle of the distribution of energy and matter in space – the spatial tension does not allow the contraction of energy, so that it passes only through one hole, because this would require the application of additional, probably much greater force.
Another important question related to the theoretical side of the wave function of the electron is answered. What happens to it at the moment of the electron’s impact on the photographic plate? Does it collapse, disappear, or does something else happen? So far, there have been various theoretical and mathematical hypotheses, but not that there is actually any wave in the form of energy distributed around the particles. When an electron or something that has mass at rest bumps into the photographic plate and is localized, we are not talking about the collapse of a mathematical wave function or a variety of mathematical variants, but about the transformation of energy. In this act, many things can happen – two particles collide and exchange and change their energies, emit photons, and reduce their energies, change a molecule, etc.
Heisenberg ‘s uncertainty principle – the change in momentum over or equal to the Planck constant divided by 4πis a direct consequence of the fifth interaction. In Figure 4a we see how so far, the moment of interaction is described, for example between two electrons. In Figure 4b how it proceeds according to the present understanding.
Heisenberg’s uncertainty arises from the distribution of energy in space, whose expression is Planck’s constant and is supplemented by 4π, which is the spatial relationship between the surface of a sphere and its radius. In this case, the electrons begin to influence each other long before they reach the resting part, thus changing their energy and coordinates. Similarly, Heisenberg’s uncertainty arises from the interaction of the arranged energies of all micro-objects, whether protons, neutrons, atoms, etc.
Let us now consider another question concerning the distribution of matter and energy at the level of atoms. We take the simplest atom – that of hydrogen with one proton and one electron. Between the proton and the electron, there are two forces – gravitational and electromagnetic, both of which are attractive. So, the question is, why doesn’t the electron fall on top of the proton? Here again intervenes the spatial tension, which acts opposite to the gravitational and electromagnetic forces and in interaction with them determines the distance at which they must stand. If the electron receives energy, what would happen if there were no fifth interaction? Although the impact of gravity at these distances is negligible, increasing its mass, the electron should approach the proton, even insignificantly. However, the opposite happens – taking energy, the electron moves away or breaks away from the proton. Why is that? Because the force that is responsible for the concentration of energy and matter in the universe requires distancing, so as not to disrupt their distribution in space. The different fundamental interactions also determine the composition of the atom. The balance between the strong and the fifth interaction determines the distances between the particles in the nucleus and its stability. The electromagnetic forces and the spatial voltage set the electron layers. The emission of energy from an electron reduces the concentration of mass and energy in the particular space, and in order to reach a steady state again, it goes to a lower level. The absorption of energy sends it to a higher level. There is a limit to the absorption of energy, beyond which the spatial tension takes precedence, and the electron is separated and becomes free. The photovoltaic effect is also due to this.
We see the same thing if we go to a higher level of consideration – at the level of atoms. As John D. Barrow argues, everything made of atoms has a density pretty close to the density of a single atom. This is not accidental and is due precisely to the fifth interaction. According to Stephen W. Hawking asks, “Why is the universe so uniform on a large scale? Why does it look the same at all points of space and in all directions?” Because the force acting in the direction of uniform distribution of matter and energy in space leads to this result, both on the scale of the Universe and on the scale of the smallest experimentally established units of mass and energy.
How does this force work, not at the level of building blocks or at the level of the infinite size of the universe, but at something that is closer to our ideas and that we can observe even directly? Let’s imagine an artificial satellite orbiting the earth. There is only one force between them – mutual attraction. What prevents the satellite from falling directly to the ground? The same applies to the movement of the moon around the earth. Why aren’t they getting closer? This does not happen because they are located on lines where gravity and spatial tension are neutralized. These lines we usually call “orbits.” Whether it’s the Earth’s natural satellite, the moon, or artificial satellites, it doesn’t matter. At the same time, as the electron, if it receives enough energy, will break away from its “orbit” (energy level) and become free, so the artificial satellite would do the same. The force that acts in the direction of uniform distribution of energy and matter in space requires this. The passage on one side or the other of the neutralization line gives precedence to any of the forces. The same can be said about the movement of celestial bodies, both within our solar system and on a larger scale.
One extremely important thing that arises from the action of spatial tension is the determination of the direction in which entropy operates. The striving for energy and matter to be distributed evenly in space makes clutter necessarily increase over time and order decreases.
Some very important clarifications need to be made. The fifth interaction should not be regarded as antigravity. This is not so, because, in addition to gravity at certain levels, spatial tension also opposes the strong and electromagnetic interaction. The other important clarification is that it also has nothing to do with Einstein’s cosmological constant, which as a cumulative force has a significant influence over hundreds of millions of light years. It also has nothing to do with the conventional concept of vacuum energy, which has a lot in common with the cosmological constant.
In conclusion, we can say that the fifth interaction is the most comprehensive in the universe and the action in one and the same way, both smallest constituents of matter and energy, and of the vast formations of them. By defining it, we can understand the nature of many physical phenomena that have been discovered experimentally or theoretically.
Barrow, J. (2002). The Constants of Nature. From Alfa to Omega. London, Jonathan Cape
Hawking, St. (2016). A Brief History of Time. From the Big Bang to Black Holes. London, Transworld Publishers.